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Analysis of common safety standards for woodworking machinery in China, Europe and the United States
Feb 26, 2018

At present, the protection and promotion of industrial development among trade nations through security and technical barriers has become the norm of soft power competition among nations in science and technology. Woodworking machinery as a dangerous product, its safety performance has been the obstacle of our country exports to Europe and America [1]. At the same time, the quality of our products exported to Europe and the United States is quite different from the products sold domestically. Enterprises often implement the national standard in domestic production while the export products have to get the certification mark such as CE, but also greatly change the safety design of the machinery, thus greatly increasing the enterprises The cost of production, product quality consistency and continuity is difficult to be guaranteed. Research comparing the difference between the national standard and the European and American standards, paying attention to the latest developments in the technical requirements for the safety of European and American countries is conducive to promoting the development of woodworking machinery safety technology in our country, avoiding the export risks for the enterprises in product design and production and for the import and export inspection Department control monitoring focus to provide a reference.

1 standard development

The earliest European standard prEN 691-92 for the general requirements for health and safety of woodworking machinery was released in April 1992, but for the most part no formal standard was published. The draft standard prEN 691-1: 2010 was released in June 2010 and presented for discussion and evaluation to member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), which was finalized after more than two years of discussion and revised by CEN Officially approved in September 2012 and published in October 2012 Official standard EN 691-1: 2012. The standard requires member states to complete the translation of their corresponding national standards by April 30, 2013, and to withdraw old standards that conflict with the new standards [2-3].


The first woodworking machinery safety directive issued by the United States dates back to 1944, and after its official establishment in 1952, the standard went through four major changes. The current version is mainly derived from the version formed in 1975, which was revised in 1979 and subsequently updated in 1992, 2002 and 2004. For the first time in 2004, the resolution of the U.S. Department of Safety and Health (OSHA) was adopted. The later version, the currently used version of ANSI O1.1-2009, is a common safety standard and will continue to be added to special machines Security requirements of the key elements [4].


China's woodworking machinery development started later, mainly based on foreign products in the early imitation, in 1990 for the first time released woodworking machinery national standards. With the gradual improvement of the woodworking machinery industry, the standard has obviously not apply to the development of woodworking machinery at home and abroad at that time. According to the European standard draft Pr EN 691: 1992, GB 12557-1990 was first revised in 2000 to form GB 12557-2000 standard. Subsequently, with the rapid development of China's woodworking machinery, the basic occupation of the domestic market and a large number of export export background, through the revision of the 2000 version of the standard, forming the woodworking machinery industry in the current GB 12557-2010 version of the safety standards

2 standard development features contrast

2.1 architecture


The development of China National Standard for Woodworking Machinery (hereinafter referred to as "GB") mainly refers to the European Standard (hereinafter referred to as the European Standard) and is therefore consistent with the main framework of the European Standard. The scope includes normative references, terminology and definitions, hazard tables, safety requirements and / Or measures, the use of information a total of 6 chapters, the main requirements for the manufacturer's safety and technical requirements; American Standard (hereinafter referred to as the American standard) mainly based on the whole process of using the product standards, including scope, purpose, application, machine tools Description, definition, general requirements, special machine tools and equipment requirements, maintenance, the use of a total of seven chapters, in addition to the manufacturing requirements of the machine also includes the use of maintenance and use requirements. In general, the national standard system framework is roughly the same as the industry standard technical specifications. The European standard system framework gradually moves closer to the system architecture of IEC appliance safety standards. The US standard system framework is similar to the design guide operating manuals and legal and regulatory documents except the technical requirements The parties also set the security requirements and responsibilities.


2.2 The scope of application


GB specifies the safety requirements of machine tools, including all except woodworking portable woodworking machine tools. The European standard specifies the hazards, types of hazards and injuries associated with woodworking machines, including woodworking machines with cutting and / or sanding tools. Not applicable Products are: ① Expected to work in a fixed position, by a single lifting of the desktop machine tools and Quality of up to 25 kg, removable machine tool covered by EN 61029; ② hand-held power tools covered by EN 60745; ③ dust-collecting and vacuuming machines (covered by EN 12779). American Standard covers the safety requirements for the design, installation, maintenance and use of woodworking machine tools and accessories, including woodworking machines for industrial and commercial use with a total power of 3.7kW and above or with 3-phase power cords. Inapplicable products are: Handheld Electric tools, assembly machines, polishing application machines, basic sheet metal manufacturing machine tools, barrel machines and sawmills and other standard machines.


Compared with the European and American standards, the applicable scope of the national standard describes the following shortcomings: ① The definition of the scope of application is vague. The definition of "portable woodworking machine" itself refers to "all kinds of hand-driven woodworking machinery driven by power". The boundaries are mainly concentrated in " Type ", in fact, is not clear for the portable machine is portable, such machines in the country should be GB 13960 series of standards covered. ② According to the actual application, GB applicability to dust collection and vacuum machine is generally no special corresponding technical terms. ③ Currently domestic woodworking machine safety standards GB 12557 and wood-based panel machinery safety standards GB 18514 overlap. ④ European standard, the United States does not apply the mechanical type is relatively more detailed, easy to identify and apply.


2.3 reference standard


In reference to the number of standards, the national standard of 32, the European standard of 51, the American standard of 18. In reference to the standard content, the contents of the European standard is the most abundant, the European standard reference standard compared with the national standard, in addition to general mechanical safety, ergonomics, acoustics, protective equipment and liquid gas equipment, but also includes reference standards such as electromagnetic compatibility, and each Reference standard part of a more detailed classification; American Standard Reference Standard Compared with the European standard, the main part of the protection equipment and protection is not listed in the relevant standards, only through the text to explain the relevant standards are applicable. As can be seen from the reference standard, the European standard system is more complete and detailed.


2.4 Definition of terms


Machine definition description: the most perfect American standard, is divided into seven categories of machine tools, 27 categories of machine tool products, all kinds of machine tools are explained to facilitate understanding. GB has the total definition of woodworking machine tools, and another reference standard GB / T 15379-1994, the standard only 12 broad categories of machine tool definitions, not for small categories of products to distinguish. European standard only woodworking machine tool total definition, did not reflect the specific terms of machine tools, machine tool definition is lacking.


Terminology: a total of 19 national standard, can be found in EN 691 corresponding content; European standard EN EN 12100: 2010 in the definition of terms, and include another 25 terms; American standard in alphabetical order, a total of 65 terms Relatively speaking, the definition of terms in American Standard is rather rich and easy to find and understand.

3 main content analysis and comparison

3.1 Dangerous list


GB with reference to the European standard provides a list of hazards for each type of hazard lists the source of danger and hazardous injury types, specific hazards listed in the standard section of the provisions of the standard. The list of hazards of the European standard is most exhaustive. The danger sources and potential consequences are listed for each type of danger, mainly involving mechanical, electrical, thermal, noise, vibration, radiation, materials and substances The dangers of ergonomics, ignoring the dangers of human and machine tools and other environmental factors related to the risk of 9 categories. Each type of danger has a specific correspondence to the provisions of EN ISO 12100: 2010, at the same time gives the specific danger of the standard chapter of the provisions of the articles. American Standard does not provide a separate risk list, only through Section 4.3 of the "Dangerous Goods Identification and Control" has been provided, but did not specify the type of danger applicable to woodworking machinery.


GB and the European standard list of risks in accordance with the basic ISO 12100 given, more standardized and unified. American standard will be dangerous type and protection requirements together, is not conducive to identify the specific type of woodworking machinery used in dangerous types, but more practical in woodworking machinery design.


3.2 Safety requirements and / or measures


3.2.1 safety requirements principles


GB to maximize the danger and limit the risk as the goal, and in line with GB / T 15706.1-2007 in 5.1. The European standard stipulates that safety shall comply with Chapter 5 safety requirements and / or protective measures; machine design shall comply with the principles of EN ISO 12100: 2010; guidelines for risk reduction shall be designed in accordance with EN ISO 12100: 2010 6.2, protective measures see EN ISO 12100: 2010 6.3. American Standard focuses on clear responsibilities of all parties including manufacturers, component manufacturers, reformers, rebuilders, system designers / creators, tools / fixtures / designers / creators, training and maintenance, employees and more. The national standard and the European standard focus on the design of the machine tool, the risk reduction during the manufacturing stage and protection, etc. The American Standard extends the safety requirements to all related parties.


3.2.2 Control System Requirements


Control system requirements are the core content of safety standards. The three standard Chinese and European standards alone control system chapters independent requirements, the American Standard does not separate the control system, but the relevant functional requirements and special machine requirements section Related description. The main content comparison is as follows.


(1) Safety and reliability of control device: GB 5.2.2 makes general requirements on the safety and reliability of control devices, and refers to GB / T 16855.1 for the adopted categories of control system safety components. Different from the GB standard, the European Standard 5.2.1 classifies all control functions as safety and reliability of the control device, and gives general requirements, required performance levels (PLr), design of safety functions , Safety Embedded Software (SRESW), Safety Application Software (SRASW), PL Value Verification, Verification Measures, Environmental Conditions, Safety Precautions (Jog Function, Enabling Device, Two-Hand Control Device, Pressure Sensitive Guards, Optoelectronic protective device, removable protective cover), start, stop (normal stop, work stop, emergency stop), brake function, mode selection, spindle speed change, power clamping, power supply failure, manual reset function, local control function Other requirements. American standard will control device safety and reliability requirements included in the special machine chapter, the specific device and function were described.


(2) Relevant requirements for energy cut-off: GB 5.2.1 requires energy removals, re-closing and other requirements. It is required to use socket / plug to provide energy to be cut off. The exception is a circuit (such as clamping the workpiece, Information, lighting, etc.) to maintain the connection need to take special protective measures. European standard, American standard not separately listed requirements, but the European standard in the stop function of the general requirements for type 0, type 1 and type 3 have relevant energy cut request description.


(3) the relevant requirements of the manipulator: 5.2.3 of the national standard on the manipulator shape and size, location, operation direction, operating force and so on are given a specific range of requirements, the use of interlocks have also made Claim. Clause 5.2.2 of the European standard sets forth the specific limits for the position of the manipulator. For the general requirements for the installation of the manual controller with the horizontal distance from the operator, as well as the arrangement of the stopping control device, the emergency stop control device and the reset controller, It should be noted that due to the use of national average height differences and other reasons, the national standard and the European standard of the specific requirements of the manipulator slightly different, export manufacturers in the machine design should take into account this factor. American Standard 4.4.1 only places general requirements on the position of the manipulator and does not specify a specific range of limits. The handle handwheel operation gives the clockwise and counterclockwise operating direction requirements and allows for the exception: as with a handwheel control A shaft, allowing both sides of the hand wheel rotation in the opposite direction, which is different with the national standard requirements.


(4) Relevant requirements for start-up: GB 5.2.4 refers to the relevant provisions in GB 5226.1-2008 for start-up and makes general requirements for start-up sequence, interlocking and restarting. European standard 5.2.1.10 on the start sequence, interlocking and other general requirements are basically the same with the national standard for the realization of the start-up function through the time delay device, start, restart and interlock control system security-related components required PL value of at least c (PL: degree of protection, from EN ISO 13849-1: 2008, the same below). The American Standard does not make general requirements on the normal start-up of the machine tool. Section 4.4.1.2 describes the requirements for preventing accidental start-up (this does not include the start-up of an emergency stop). The detailed descriptions of the remaining start-up requirements are given in the section on special machine tools.

(5) to stop the relevant requirements: 5.2.2 of the national standard for the normal stop, stop the order, cut off the energy and so made a general requirement, 5.2.6 for the emergency stop, reference GB / T 15706.2-2007 and GB 16754 of the relevant provisions Requirements, requirements in accordance with the specific machine to determine the emergency stop cut order. European standard 5.2.1.11 The stop function is divided into normal stop, stop working, emergency stop, and all three stopping methods are detailed requirements, mainly related to the control safety level of brake system, power drive system safety related (PDS (SR)) Stop the request and so on. American Standard describes the normal stop requirements on the special machine, respectively, Section 4.4.2 specifically made specific requirements on the type, function, color, accessible location and restart of the emergency stop device. Among them, from the European and American standards on the emergency stop function requirements described in the description of the function can be seen. In the actual testing process found that many domestic manufacturers do not recognize the urgent stop requirements, such as woodworking drilling machine commonly used rope-type emergency stop device, many manufacturers are using no reset function of the emergency stop device, the operator loose After pulling the rope machine will continue to run, may lead to mechanical accidents.


(6) the relevant requirements of mode selection: GB reference GB / T 15706.2-2007 in 4.11.9, 4.11.10 of the provisions of the mode conversion can not cause the machine to start. In addition to the requirements of the European standard can not cause the machine to start, but also requires the mode converter can be locked, mode switching control of all functional changes, the machine can stop the movement (unless from low to safe mode high safety mode), and require the use of PL For the c-level control components. American Standard does not have special requirements for mode selection, but in semi-automatic and fully automatic mode, there are corresponding requirements for the jogging operation of the machine tool.


(7) Speed Requirements: The national standard 5.2.8 The speed change provisions require the selection of a suitable speed, and the selection of safe speed, can be read out on the machine speed, there is risk of starting beyond the maximum speed requirements. European standard 5.2.11.4 of the general requirements for changes in speed and the national standard is basically the same, and requires that the belt drive through the mix to change the speed to achieve PL value of c-level, multi-speed motor speed change to achieve PL value of b-level, infinitely variable to reach PL value For the c level. American standard 4.13 operating speed in the assembly of the tool can be used to select the appropriate speed, speed requirements for labeling instructions, and require the operator and tool installers to be clear about the conditions of use of the speed.


(8) Power Clamping Requirements: European Standard 5.2.1.15 fulfills the PL value of c for a power control system that may result in the prevention of impact and shear hazards. American Standard 4.4.3 Requirements When the emergency stop button is pressed, the dynamic clamping device should not be released, unless it is completed a clamping cycle or the operator requires it to release. GB 5.3.10 Clamping device Clause Requirements The motorized clamping device will remain clamped when the energy supply fails.


3.2.3 Hazard protective requirements


As for the requirements of dangerous protection, the contents of the national standard and the European standard are basically the same. GB also added automation and mechanization, multi-process machine tools and safety work devices and so on. The European standard will be listed in a separate chapter of the danger of collision. American Standard combines hazard protection with Section 4.3 "Danger Identification and Control" (Electromagnetic Compatibility Danger, Electrical System Danger, Pressure System Danger, Stabbing, Cutting, Shear Danger, Sports Hazard, Electric Crank, Lever, Control Handwheel , Ladders / Stairs, Work Platforms and Aisles, Dust Hazards, Anti-Motion Mechanisms or Equalizer Systems, Chemical Effects, Protective Equipment Requirements, Danger of Mechanical Stability, Invasion, Lead-in and Extrusion Hazard, Projectile Projectile Hazard , Ejection, Danger of collision, Danger of winding and pinching, Danger of wear, Danger of radiation, Other hazards), Pneumatic and hydraulic, Cutting tools, Material handling components, Foot control, Work support / blanking height, Spindle design , Working speed, drive pin, tool / workpiece gliding, speed of revolving cutting speed, overhauling door / cover and so on.


(1) Stability related requirements: The national standard 5.3.1 Chapter stability requirements reference GB 15706.2-2007 in the provisions of 5.2.6, did not give the test method. The European standard 5.3.1 of the requirements of the wheel brake and other requirements of mobile machines, and Appendix A (normative) gives the stability of mobile machine tools and fixed machine tool transport test methods. Section 4.3.13 of the US standard fixed machine, movable machine wheel and caster and so on are required, and the machine stability test conducted.


(2) General requirements for guards: GB 5.3.7 gives the types of protective measures for manual and mechanical feed, and the requirements for the gears. Section 5.3.8 mainly refers to the general requirements for machine design. Subclause 5.3.5.1 of the European standard divides the guards into two types: fixed and movable, and provides that the movable guards provide the corresponding delay function according to their inertia operation time (according to EN1088: 1995 + A2: 2008 Appendix N and M's request). American Standard 4.3.12 section of the commonly used safety equipment, two-hand operation device, stop device, photoelectric protection devices and other requirements have a specific description. In terms of safety protection, the main contents of the three standards are basically the same, the national standard gives the general requirements as well as the test methods as well as the limits; the European standard puts the test methods on the appendix; the American Standard gives the general requirements as well as the requirements for each device The requirements, there is no specific test method.


(3) Braking related requirements: The national standard section 5.3.4 corresponds to the European standard section 5.3.4, and specific provisions are made on the braking time, requiring the braking time to be less than 10s, and the starting time to be between 10s and 30s The machine tool provides the brake time should be less than the start-up time, and gives the test method. The American standard does not specify the braking time limit, except that the brake must be self-energizing or self-locking in the paragraph 4.3.9.4.


(4) Projectile-related requirements: GB 5.3.5 only requires the use of devices that prevent projectile on the machine tools at risk of projectile, and makes general requirements on the device. Section 5.3.9 of the European standard for projectile protection requirements are very specific, the projectile protection is divided into Category A requirements and Class B requirements, each type of protection are given the minimum strength of protective materials and minimum thickness, and in Appendix A and Appendix B Given a specific test method. Section 4.3.15 of the United States on the anti-retreat device, error feed protection and tool flying protection requirements. China's export enterprises should note that due to the European standard to prevent the most detailed projection requirements, each parameter has specific requirements, the design should pay attention to the type of protective sheet and the specific strength and thickness to meet the relevant standards.


(5) dust protection requirements: GB 5.4.3 chapter corresponds with the European standard 5.4.3, the dust protection requirements in more detail, including protective measures, the catheter allows the vacuum speed and so have specific requirements. European standard gives the verification method of the speed of vacuuming. Section 4.3.8 of the US standard only provides for the connection of vacuuming facilities and defines the employer's responsibility requirements in Chapter 7.


(6) Ergonomics related requirements: GB 5.4.4 has specific limits on the maximum operating force of the machine tool, the maximum height from the ground, etc., and requires the design and measures for safe handling and safe entry. The European standard and the American standard only listed in the danger which involved the ergonomic hazards, on the involved machine tool operation force, the height limit and so on in the related section has made the request.


(7) Noise-related requirements: GB 5.4.2 gives noise test methods and noise limits of various typical machine tools. The European standard 5.4.2 requires measures to reduce noise and gives a specific test method. The test method and single limits given in 4.3.10 of the US standard provide that operators should be provided with noise protection equipment if the average sound pressure level at the operating station for continuous 8 hours of operation is greater than 85 dB (A). The national standard provides some band sawing machine, sander and other noise requirements limit is 90dB (A), such export-oriented machines to pay attention to export-related restrictions and standards.


(8) Pneumatic and hydraulic related requirements: GB 5.4.7 Pneumatic devices refer to the relevant requirements of GB / T 7932 and EN 983: 1996, 5.4.8 Hydraulic devices refer to the relevant requirements of GB / T 3766 and EN 982: 1996. European standard pneumatic device quoted EN ISO 4414: 2010 related requirements, hydraulic devices cited EN ISO 4413: 2010 related requirements. Section 4.3.9.3 of the American Standard requires pneumatic and hydraulic driveline systems that have a mechanical risk of falling parts to be prevented or delayed by a counterbalance valve to prevent injury.


(9) Thermal Hazard Requirements: National Standard 5.4.1 requires safety measures for fire and explosion. Section 5.4.9 requires measures to be taken to prevent access to or exposure to heat hazards. The European standard does not make any special requirements for heat hazards, but there is a relevant protection requirement in Section 5.4.1 on fire hazards (related to environmental factors such as dust). There are no special sections in the American Standard that address the requirements for heat and fire-related hazards, but fire protection is required in chapters such as fire hazards and shrouds caused by short circuits.


(10) Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility Related Requirements: The American Standard 4.3.1.1 Clause solves the related electromagnetic interference problem caused by the machine itself, and requires the reduction of electromagnetic interference to reach the relevant standards of the U.S. Federal Committee. At the same time, it also emphasizes the need to consider reducing the electromagnetism to other electrical elements Device, communication interference and harm to the human body, reducing external electromagnetic interference on mechanical equipment and control circuits. The European standard 5.4.9 requires that machinery should have sufficient anti-electromagnetic interference performance to ensure normal operation, to achieve EN 60439-1: 1999, EN 60439-1: 1999 / A1: 2004, EN 50370-1: 2005 and EN 50370 -2: 2003 standard, it is generally accepted that electrical components with the CE mark and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and can withstand external electromagnetic interference. GB in this area is not related to the requirements, so when the product is exported to Europe and America should pay attention to the relevant provisions of the electromagnetic interference requirements, the use of appropriate electromagnetic interference protection measures and the selection of components in line with the relevant requirements.


In general, all types of standard safety protection requirements are basically the same, the national standard and the European standard are more similar, divided into mechanical hazards and non-mechanical hazards protection, the United States did not make any special distinction. In the European standard, the material, mechanical and physical properties, etc. of the specific safety protection device are put forward. The national standard and the American standard are all stipulated by referring to relevant standards. The limit is not specified specifically, and the application is relatively poor. American standard with a lot of space to describe the safety requirements of special machine tools, for each special type of machine tools have different requirements, guidelines more clearly.


3.3 use of information


The content of the three standard usage information is basically the same, including the warning device, logo and logo, the national standard and the European standard also stipulate the contents of the instruction manual, and the American standard does not reflect the detailed requirements of the manual.


3.4 appendix


There are two national standard GB Appendix: Appendix A (informative) examples of noise reduction measures; Appendix B (informative) suction port design principles, they are informative, not for reference only as a mandatory requirement.


A total of six European standard Appendix: Appendix A (Normative) Stability test of stationary machine tools, mainly to simulate the machine may move in the process of instability, which led to the risk of machine overturning. Appendix B (Normative) Shock test method, described the general requirements, test methods, conclusions and other content, the standard gives examples of impact test equipment, while a variety of protective devices, detailed sampling, testing, etc. Claim. Appendix C (Normative) Braking performance test, the provisions of the brake test conditions, inertia operation time, braking time, start-up time and other testing requirements. Appendix D (Normative) noise measurement working conditions, a clear test conditions, test methods, record reports, working conditions and other aspects of the operation. Appendix E (informative) Spindle overspeed monitoring gives an example of how the spindle overspeed monitoring performance level reaches level c. Appendix F (informative) gives a list of recommended vacuum air flow rates for a variety of woodworking machines. 4 normative appendix main test methods, requirements made.


After the American Standard attached to multiple pages of different woodworking machine tools and device type protection icon, the contents of the diagram is very intuitive and practical, can basically find the corresponding type of woodworking machine tools and devices for the key protection requirements in the design and safety inspection Can be used as a reference.