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China's Overall Import Of Woodworking Machinery And International Market Demand
Feb 26, 2018

1 description of woodworking machinery.

Woodworking machinery is widely used in wood processing industry of machinery referred to, the use of degree and the strength is the Chinese wood processing industry mechanization and automation level of important symbol, is also China's wood processing industry to shift from labor-intensive to capital and technology intensive key way and measure.

China's timber processing industry has become the world's largest producer and trader of wood products after nearly a decade of rapid development, and woodworking machinery has played an important role in this process.

According to the UN Comtrade Database (United Nations Commodity Trade Database, UN Commodity Trade Statistics Database), according to data from 1992-2014 China woodworking machinery imports have grown from $104 million to $104 million, average annual growth of 14.58%.

The role of woodworking machinery mainly reflects in promoting productivity growth of the enterprise, research has pointed out that the wood processing enterprises in China from 1998 to 2007 the average productivity of accelerated growth [2], at the same time China woodworking machinery imports of annual average growth rate of 24.31%, this to a certain extent, shows the woodworking machinery investment has a positive contribution to improve the enterprise productivity.

Chinese woodworking machinery shows that Chinese woodworking machinery can not replace foreign woodworking machinery completely.

Europe as the world's woodworking machinery manufacturing heartland is high-end woodworking machinery to gather [3], China's imports of woodworking machinery in European countries in pursuit of high technology, high quality products, but domestic producers cannot provide these products.

From the point of the actual situation of our country woodworking machinery imports, Europe and many similar to our country economic development level of countries, even some countries behind China's economic development, is to export to China woodworking machinery, and is a long-term export.

In order to understand the import situation of woodworking machinery, such as general characteristics and structural characteristics, grasp the change and trend of the woodworking machinery imports in our country, this article will analyze the international woodworking machinery market in China needs, in order to indicate the direction of the further development of China's wood processing industry.

Woodworking machinery involved in this paper mainly includes the following categories: woodworking machinery classification using coordinate system (HS92 HS96 HS02 HS07 HS12) classification method, sawing machine for 846591, grinding or polishing machine for 846593, bending or assembly machine for 846594, drilling or mortising machine for 846595, cut, cut, skiving machine for 846596, 846599 of other machinery, woodworking machinery and with a knife blade is 820820, does not need to transform tool can processing machinery for 846510.

The woodworking machinery mentioned in this paper has no special instructions and is no longer labeled.


2. General characteristics of Chinese woodworking machinery import.

2.1 overall import of woodworking machinery and its growth rate.


The import growth rate of Chinese woodworking machinery products showed obvious fluctuation.

In 1992-2014, there were 8 peaks in the import of woodworking machinery, namely 1993, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2010 and 2013, with an average of three years of fluctuation;

Woodworking machinery imports of the same period rose from $104 million to $104 million, imports rose by nearly 2 times, the average annual growth rate of 14.58%, twice the peak value of imports were $714 million, appeared in 2007 and 2010, respectively, as shown in figure 1.

Figure 1 total import of Chinese woodworking machinery and its growth rate.


The increase of import of Chinese woodworking machinery products is obviously staged.

2001 China officially joined the WTO and the global financial crisis broke out in 2008 as a cut-off two woodworking machinery import situation can be divided into three stages: the first stage, the "roller coaster" is its typical characteristics, from 1992 to 1993, imports increased from $104 million to $237 million, increased by 127.34%, from 1996 to 1997, down from $396 million to $396 million of value, or as high as 53.81%, and then reach a new peak in 2000, then fell again;

The second phase, "steady growth" is its basic characteristics, maintain sustained growth in 2002-2007, imports increased from $275 million to $714 million, an average annual growth rate of 23.73%, year of this period did not appear negative growth;

The third stage, "highs" is its basic characteristics, the global financial crisis in 2009 after the woodworking machinery imports, but a strong rebound in 2010, after four years have been falling, but the import quota has remained at more than $300 million.


The reasons for the volatility and stage of the import growth of Chinese woodworking machinery are as follows:


(1) woodworking machinery imports and wood processing industry development are inseparable, the former is the latter the core way to promote mechanization and automation, increase the volatility of the wood processing industry will directly affect the woodworking machinery imports, the growth of demand, the steady easier to push timber processing enterprises to update equipment, woodworking machinery and mechanization, automation is to further improve the production efficiency;

On the contrary, weak demand and declining growth have made enterprises feel the sense of crisis, so they will not increase investment in woodworking machinery.

(2) macro-economic environment affects the import of woodworking machinery.

2010 China woodworking machinery imports comes from the central government's 4 trillion investment after the 2008 financial crisis rescue operation, and greatly increasing the minimum wage for workers since 2008, accelerated the process of enterprise capital instead of labor.

But the wood processing industry belongs to labor-intensive industries and mainly small and medium-sized enterprises, capital instead of labor can't continue to push and this is after 2010 woodworking machinery imports continued down one of the reasons.


(3) after wood processing industry in China in recent years the development of the accumulation of several years ago have become the world's largest producer of wood products and trading nation, and its matching the woodworking machinery manufacturing industry has won good development opportunities in the meantime, some products have been able to compete with the international well-known products, to some extent fits the actual of wood processing industry, China is more advantageous to the product use and promotion, the international woodworking machinery is also a kind of alternative and complementary products, this is the import of woodworking machinery products in China after 2010 swiftly be another reason.


2.2 import and growth rate of woodworking machinery classification products.


The import growth rate of different types of woodworking machinery shows obvious fluctuation, and runs through the whole study period.

Eight different types imports of woodworking machinery products respectively in nine, eight, seven, eight, seven, eight, seven, seven peaks, respectively in 9, 10, 10, 8, 10, 9, 12, 8 times of negative growth and consecutive year of negative growth is not much, as shown in figure 2.

The fluctuation of import amount of different woodworking machinery products is its basic characteristic.

Due to differences in dimension, the same amplitude difference can lead to wide fluctuations in figure 2 (a), (c), (e) the volatility of the smallest, its dimensional unit for $1 million, $5 million and $5 million respectively, shown in figure 2 (b), (d) the volatility of middle and its dimension 1 $0 million;

In figure 2 (f), (g) and (h), the maximum volatility is $50 million, $20 million and $20 million respectively.

Eight kinds of woodworking machinery products imports of average annual growth rate of 10.6%, 42.2%, 12.1%, 10.7%, 40.0%, 23.8%, 12.8%, 23.8%, the highest growth rates were 85.9%, 203.5%, 113.6%, 125.7%, 662.2%, 265.0%, 112.4%, 265.0%, the lowest growth rate is respectively 37.6%, 86.7%, 46.4%, 54.3%, 54.3%, 64.0%, 41.1%, 41.1%.


Different types of woodworking machinery products import different disparity.

HS codes for imports of woodworking machinery products, the lowest 820820 of its 2014 peak at only $7.348 million, imports of such products are mainly woodworking machinery and with a knife blade, there is no special technical barriers and barriers to entry, the competitiveness of the domestic like product imports continued ascension is this kind of product has maintained at a lower level of the main reasons.

And in contrast to the HS code for 846595 product, its imports as low as $9.451 million, 1992, 2007 peak of $377 million, after a sharp decline, only $3, 5.147 million, 2014 such products for drilling or mortising machine, is a wood processing industry, especially in the furniture industry using the key equipment, the precision and reliability of such equipment have direct influence on product quality, import a lot of such a mechanical help to rapidly promote the technology level of wood processing industry in China.

Also the prosperity and development of wood processing industry force wood industry enterprises to introduce more advanced equipment, high-end equipment market expansion also promoted the prosperity of domestic woodworking machinery industry development, this is also our country this kind of woodworking machinery imports after peak appeared in 2007 and the main reason for the rapid decline.

This kind of machine is completely different from the HS code for 820820 products, technical complexity and higher barriers to entry, in terms of the stability and reliability of the product are better than the domestic similar products, the attraction of the domestic wood industry enterprises is still strong, which leads to the increase in imports as much as $359 million in 2010.

Figure 2 the import and growth rate of woodworking machinery subdivision products.


The time point and reason of the large fluctuation of import amount of different types of woodworking machinery products have obvious homogeneity.

Classification of different products at the same time have a huge increase in imports in 1993, a similar situation also happened in as China's accession to the WTO in 2001 and 2010, investigate its reason basically has the following several aspects: (1) the beginning of 1992, comrade deng xiaoping issued a "southern talk", productivity, reform, prompting the meteoric rise of township enterprises, prosperity and development of wood processing industry rapid expansion, the massive demand for woodworking machinery led to in 1993, a huge increase in imports.

(2) in 2001, China officially joined the WTO, from deeper and broader fields to join the world market, wood can be more easily enter the international market, wood processing industry for a new growth, woodworking machinery and equipment imports also increased dramatically, not only is the product of the improvement of productivity, but also the uplift of the quality of the products and technology, wood processing industry in China has entered a rapid growth track [4].

(3) the 2008 global financial crisis, the world economic situation quickly reversed, in order to make China's economy out of the crisis shadow as soon as possible, the central government emergency 4 trillion investment operation, investment to carry out the peak in 2010, not only that, the rapid rise in labor cost also accelerated the process of capital instead of labor, for the wood processing industry, is a woodworking machinery imports and extensive use of the period.

3. Structural characteristics of Chinese woodworking machinery import.

3.1 import country structure of woodworking machinery.


Chinese woodworking machinery importing countries are diverse but obviously concentrated.

According to the UN Comtrade database statistics, China woodworking machinery imports totaled $2014 in 310 million, involving more than 40 countries, imports of the top ten national total imports reached $297 million, accounting for more than 95.8%;

In 2001, the total import of Chinese woodworking machinery amounted to us $208 million, involving more than 40 countries. The imports of the top 10 countries totaled us $194 million, accounting for 93.23%.

In 1992, the Chinese woodworking machinery imports totaled $104 million, involving more than 30 countries, imports of the top ten countries (in the UN Comtrade database, one of the top ten countries for "other Asian countries," if it is excluded, the top 10 countries of imports in 2014, 2001 and 2014, for $238 million, $135 million and $135 million respectively, accounted for 76.77%, 64.90%, 50.00% respectively) imports to total $102 million, accounted for 98.08%.


China woodworking machinery import source of both Europe and the United States and other developed countries, Asia and other developing countries, but Asia's woodworking machinery imports by Europe and the United States gradually, especially in European countries (Germany, Italy, etc.).

In Germany, for example, in 2014, imports reached $105 million, to lead all the importer, the proportion is as high as 34.02%, in 2001, and accounted for $033 million and 15.81% of value, of imports in 1992 and accounted for $006 million and 5.87%.

Contrast is Japan, imports in 2014 was $037 million, accounting for 11.79%, imports and its proportion for $2001 in 049 million and 23.78%, higher than that of Germany, to lead all importer, and imports and its proportion for $1992 in 009 million and 8.66% (in 1992, the Chinese woodworking machinery imports is given priority to with Asia, other Asian countries and Hong Kong, China, total $072 million, accounts for 69.36% of total imports).


At present, Chinese woodworking machinery import products mainly in Europe, as shown in figure 3.

Germany and Italy have firmly woodworking machinery importer in China, the two countries in recent years woodworking machinery market in the import of our country strong counter attack, all the way higher, almost half of woodworking machinery import market in China;

North America has been hovered at a lower market share, with the us share of less than 10 per cent, having performed worse over the past decade.

Asian countries especially Japan ever glory, 10 years before the 2090 s and the 21st century, has been in a leading position, but its nearly five years in China's market share has been replaced by the German imports.

Figure 3 the import amount and the proportion of the total import amount of the major importing countries in China.


3.2 construction of woodworking machinery import continent.


Chinese woodworking machinery imports intercontinental disparity disparity, the intercontinental has a strong characteristic.

Major European countries, major Asian countries and other countries occupy a high share, as shown in figure 4.

Major Asian countries share "olive shape", has been 10 years before the 21st century, China's woodworking machinery source of imports, the market share in 2004-2008, more than a major European countries, but then fell back quickly.

Wood processing industry during this period the world center gradually transferred to China, in China as the world's largest producer of wood products processing and trading nation in the process, wood products processing industry of other Asian countries has received the unprecedented impact, some countries are turning to woodworking machinery exports, Japan is one of the most typical example.

Rapid expansion in the wood processing industry, high mechanization, automation, integration of woodworking machinery, the cost is not generally small and medium-sized enterprises can undertake, nor to the requirement of technology and talent can satisfy the general small and medium-sized enterprises (smes).

Due to the wood processing industry development of Asian countries and China are close, woodworking machinery is more suitable for China's wood industry enterprise's actual production, imports is bigger, therefore, constitutes the middle part of the "football".

Major European nations woodworking machinery imports accounted for growing fast, as shown in figure 4 below the bottom of a curve indicates that the proportion of the area of annual change situation, its growth trend is obvious, especially since 2010, China's wood processing industry demand for European woodworking machinery is on the rise.

In 2008 the global financial crisis, labor wages rose rapidly, wood raw material costs increase rapidly, accelerate the process of the enterprise capital to replace labor, integration and automation of woodworking machinery favored by the market.

In addition, because of the needs of the transformation and upgrading of China's timber industry and the early accumulation of capital, also makes the wood industry enterprise of advanced woodworking machinery have more demand, woodworking machinery in Europe as the world's leading product preference by Chinese enterprises, the rapid growth of imports.

FIG. 4 the broken line chart of the import amount of woodworking machinery in China.


Major European countries include Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Spain, France, Sweden and Russia;

Major Asian countries include Japan, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam;

Major countries in North America include the United States and Canada;

Oceanian countries including Australia;

Other countries refer to countries other than those mentioned above (except Hong Kong).


The major countries in North America and Oceania and Hong Kong share a small proportion, but the internal differences are obvious.

Oceania mainly refers to Australia, whose woodworking machinery has been at a low level for Chinese exports. As can be seen from figure 4, it is almost identical to the curve represented by the north American countries.

The particularity of Hong Kong is to turn it as a port of the port has an important geographical position advantage, especially in July 1, 1997 officially return to the motherland mainland, the mainland imports more than Hong Kong, in 1992, for example, via Hong Kong into mainland China woodworking machinery reached $021 million, accounting for 20.56% of the total amount of imports, but as Hong Kong's return to the motherland, in 2001, only $2.8926 million, woodworking machinery imported from Hong Kong accounted for only 1.39%.

North America accounted for a relatively stable, but since 2007 has been a declining trend, indicating that just for woodworking machinery, the center of the world leading in Europe, especially Germany, Italy, rather than the u.s., Canada.


3.3 construction of the imported product of woodworking machinery.


There are 8 types of Chinese woodworking machinery import products, and the import amount of different types of products is very different, as shown in table 1.

It can be roughly divided into three categories: the first category, accounting for more than a small, small fluctuations, for example, 820820 products accounted for only 2.72%, highest proportion was only about 1.31% on average, standard deviation, the smallest is import quota of woodworking machinery products of all products, fluctuations in the smallest, irreplaceability (domestic products can replace), integral sex (annual imports of relatively stable) shows that it is belong to the woodworking machinery and with a knife blade in the top products.

The second category, accounting for than the big, big fluctuations, for example, 846595 product imports the highest proportion is as high as 52.72% (2007), the minimum is 6.42%, belongs to the most volatile products of value, again in 2010 became the highest imports of woodworking machinery products (50.34%), and since then, for four consecutive years in 2014 accounted for only 11.35%, as shown in figure 5.

Such machine for drilling, mortising processing equipment, furniture production enterprise to use the most, its share of the big, big wave reflects the development situation of furniture industry, when the furniture industry fast development the need for such machinery is strong, opposite to demand a recession.

The third class, accounted for a big, the fluctuation is not big, 846599 products, for example, the product demand is relatively large, fluctuation is small, belongs to the early 1990 s more commodity imports, but since the 21st century declines quickly, slightly rebounded in recent years.

In addition, the average proportion of products such as 846510, 846591 and 846594 is 4.12%, 8.52% and 5.93% respectively, which is also consistent with this feature.

At present, the situation of China's import of a certain type of woodworking machinery products is basically controlled, and the import of different products tends to be balanced.

Before 2000, the product of 846599 was a large one, accounting for nearly 40% of the import share.

From 2002 to 2011, 846695 products were unique and accounted for nearly 40% of the import share (the average share was 39.34%).

Since 2012, with the exception of 846599 products accounting for one-third of the total, other products have been more evenly distributed.

Which also reflects our own woodworking machinery manufacturing system is forming, does not exist the problem of some woodworking machinery cannot production, only with the world advanced level in terms of quality of products and some gap [5-6], so you need to import some relatively advanced, precision in the international woodworking machinery to meet the domestic demand for high-level product mass production enterprises.


Table 1 imports of different types of woodworking machinery products account for %.

Figure 5 China's imported woodworking machinery breakdown products for the score.


4 conclusions and implications

Based on the UN Comtrade statistics database, China imported woodworking machinery data from 1992 to 2014, and analyzed the characteristics of Chinese woodworking machinery import from two aspects: general characteristics and structural features.

Overall, the results show that: from China woodworking machinery imports to achieve significant growth in waves, highlighted in the growth stage, further subdivided into various kinds of woodworking machinery products, have found that the difference between different woodworking machinery products, but at the same time with volatility and stage;

From the structural view, China's national characteristics and state of the woodworking machinery imports don't characteristic and product structure are being diversified, centralization, the former shows that Chinese woodworking machinery imports of universality, more than 40 countries and continents are imported, which shows that Chinese woodworking machinery imports concentrated in some countries, in some areas, some products, this part imports accounted for most of Chinese woodworking machinery imports;

From the point of a general trend, the Chinese woodworking machinery imports have to shift from "quantity" to "quality", woodworking machinery, the world's leading European countries, such as Germany and Italy are become the main source of imports of Chinese woodworking machinery, woodworking machinery, high-end market is still firmly in Germany, Italy and other countries.


Nearly four years, the Chinese woodworking machinery imports still remains at a relatively high level, indicating that China's demand for high-end woodworking machinery slightly rigid and relatively strong, the domestic like product. It is not easy to want to replace, but its imports rapid decline to a certain extent, also reflects the development of domestic woodworking machinery industry has paid off, general woodworking machinery products the domestic market can meet the demand, which can give us the following two enlightenments: 1) advanced woodworking machinery is becoming the focus of the current Chinese woodworking machinery imports, on the one hand, reflects the Chinese wood processing industry is moving to the capital and technology intensive, on the other hand also reflects the Chinese woodworking machinery industry development level has yet to be further ascension;

(2) woodworking machinery imports more than the height of the rapid development of wood processing industry, woodworking machinery imports must improve the industrial capital intensity, enhance the level of mechanization and automation, but the rapid development of wood processing industry will accelerate the plethora of new enterprises, presents the "replication growth", a large number of new businesses diluted the increase of the industrial capital intensity, in fact is not conducive to the industry upgrading, and may fall into the "low level trap".

This article proposed "the low level trap" is due to the emergence of a large number of new businesses diluted the existing enterprise industry capital intensity, assuming the number must be, a large number of imports of woodworking machinery will increase the industry's capital intensity and the technical level, realizing industrial upgrading, but if the woodworking machinery imports to increase, or woodworking machinery usage increased contributions are new enterprises, is the copy or replica of existing enterprise, and capital intensity and the technical level of the whole industry did not improve.


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